Documentation versions (currently viewingVaadin 24)

Text Field

Text Field allows users to enter text.

Text Field allows users to enter text. Prefix and suffix components, such as icons, are also supported.

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<vaadin-text-field label="Street Address" value="Ruukinkatu 2" clear-button-visible>
  <vaadin-icon slot="prefix" icon="vaadin:map-marker"></vaadin-icon>

Basic Features

The following features, common to most input field components, are supported:


The label is used to identify the input field. It supports plain-text content, and its length is limited to the width of the field. Helpers and Tooltips can be used to provide additional information that doesn’t fit into the label.

Visible labels are strongly recommended for all input fields. In cases where the built-in label cannot be used, an external element can be associated as the field’s label through the aria-labelledby attribute. Fields without any visible label should include an invisible label for assistive technologies with the aria-label attribute.


Helpers are used to provide additional information that the user may need to enter in the field, such as format requirements or explanations of the field’s purpose below the field.

A style variant is available for rendering the helper above the field.

In addition to plain text, helpers can contain components and HTML elements. However, complex and interactive content is likely to have accessibility issues.


The placeholder is text that’s displayed when the field is empty. Its primary purpose is to provide a short input hint (e.g., the expected format) in situations where a Helper cannot be used.

Placeholders should not be used as a replacement for a visible label. They can be mistaken for a manually entered value. See Label for alternatives to the built-in field label.


Tooltips are small text pop-ups displayed on hover, and on keyboard-focus. They can be used to provide additional information about a field. This can be useful in situations where an always visible Helper is not appropriate. Helpers are generally recommended in favor of tooltips, though, as they provide much better discoverability and mobile support. See the Tooltip documentation for more information.

Clear Button

The clear button — which is displayed when the field is not empty — clears the field’s current value. Although the button itself is not keyboard focusable, the clear action can be taken with the Esc key, when the field has focus. The clear button can be especially useful in search and filter fields, where users often need to clear the value. They’re less useful, however, in regular forms.

Prefix & Suffix

Prefix and suffix elements — rendered at either end of the field — can be used to display units, icons, and similar visual cues to the field’s purpose or format.

Prefix and suffix elements typically don’t work well with assistive technologies like screen readers. Therefore, the information communicated by them should also be conveyed through other means, such as in a Label, a Helper, or through ARIA attributes on the field itself.

External & Invisible Labels (ARIA)

Visible labels are strongly recommended for all input fields. In situations where the built-in label cannot be used, an external element can be associated as the field’s label through its element id. Fields without any visible label should be provided an invisible label for assistive technologies like screen readers.

<!-- Associates external element as label: -->
<label id="external-label">This is the label</label>
<vaadin-text-field accessible-name-ref="external-label">...

<!-- Invisible label for screen readers: -->
<vaadin-text-field accessible-name="This is the label">...
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  helper-text="Helper text"
  <vaadin-tooltip slot="tooltip" text="Tooltip text"></vaadin-tooltip>
  <vaadin-icon slot="prefix" icon="vaadin:vaadin-h"></vaadin-icon>
  <span slot="suffix">:)</span>



Required fields are marked with an indicator next to the label, and become invalid if left empty after having been focused. An error message explaining that the field is required needs to be provided manually.

An instruction text at the top of the form explaining the required indicator is recommended. The indicator itself can be customized with the --lumo-required-field-indicator style property.

Min & Max Length

The minimum and maximum input length value constraints dictate the smallest, and the largest number of characters a field accepts. It triggers a validation error if a value shorter than the minimum length is entered, and limits text entered to the maximum length. They can be used to enforce specific formats, or to cap the value to the length supported by the underlying database schema.

In cases where the length requirements may not be clear to the user, it’s recommended to provide this information, for example by using a Helper.


The pattern is a regular expression used to validate the full value entered into the field. Any value that doesn’t match the pattern, invalidates the field.

Allowed Characters

A separate single-character, regular expression can be used to restrict the characters that can be entered into the field. Characters that don’t match the expression are rejected.

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  label="Phone number"
  helper-text="Format: +(123)456-7890"

Read-Only & Disabled

Fields used to display values should be set to read-only mode to prevent editing. Read-only fields are focusable and visible to screen readers. They can display tooltips. Their values can be selected and copied.

Fields that are currently unavailable should be disabled. The reduced contrast of disabled fields makes them inappropriate for displaying information. They can’t be focused or display tooltips. They’re invisible to screen readers, and their values cannot be selected and copied.

Disabled fields can be useful in situations where they can become enabled based on some user action. Consider hiding fields entirely if there’s nothing the user can do to make them editable.

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<vaadin-text-field readonly label="Read-only" value="Value"></vaadin-text-field>

<vaadin-text-field disabled label="Disabled"></vaadin-text-field>

Style Variants

The following style variants can be applied:

Text Alignment

Three different text alignments are supported: left, which is the default; center; and right.

Right-alignment is recommended for numerical values when presented in vertical groups. This tends to aid interpretation and comparison of values.

Small Variant

The small variant can be used to make individual fields more compact. The default size of fields can be customized with style properties.

Helper Above Field

The helper can be rendered above the field, and below the label.


Borders can be applied to the field surface by providing a value (e.g., 1px) to the --vaadin-input-field-border-width CSS property. This can be applied globally to all input fields using the html selector, or to individual component instances. Borders are required to achieve WCAG 2.1 level AA conformant color contrast with the default Lumo styling of fields.

You can override the default border color with the --vaadin-input-field-border-color property.

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  theme="align-right small helper-above-field"
  helper-text="Helper text"
  style="--vaadin-input-field-border-width: 1px;"


When a field is set to autoselect, its content is selected when the field is focused. Use autoselect when the user might to want to replace the entire value rather than adjust it.

Autoselect Focused with Result


Pointing device or keyboard navigation.

Content selected.


Pointing device.

Cursor placed where clicked.


Keyboard navigation

Cursor at the end of the input value.


Keyboard navigation

Contents selected[1]

A variety of components are available for different types of input:

Component Usage Recommendation

Text Area

Free-form multi-line text input, for text longer than can typically fit on a single line.

Email Field

For email addresses.

Number Field

Allows only numeric input.

Password Field

For securely entering passwords.

Combo Box

For selecting from a predefined set of options. Allows filtering and entering custom values.

Date Picker

Input field for entering or selecting a specific date.

Time Picker

Input field for entering or selecting a specific time.


1. Consequent keyboard navigation results in the contents being selected until the selection is changed, by either arrow navigation or mouse click.