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Designing UIs Declaratively

Declarative definition of composites and even entire UIs makes it easy for developers and especially graphical designers to work on visual designs without any coding. Designs can be modified even while the application is running, as can be the associated themes. A design is a representation of a component hierarcy, which can be accessed from Java code to implement dynamic UI logic, as well as data binding.

For example, considering the following layout in Java:

VerticalLayout vertical = new VerticalLayout ();
vertical.addComponent(new TextField("Name"));
vertical.addComponent(new TextField("Street address"));
vertical.addComponent(new TextField("Postal code"));

You could define it declaratively with the following equivalent design:

  <vaadin-text-field caption="Name"/>
  <vaadin-text-field caption="Street address"/>
  <vaadin-text-field caption="Postal code"/>

Declarative designs can be crafted by hand, but are most conveniently created with the Vaadin Designer.

In the following, we first go through the syntax of the declarative design files, and then see how to use them in applications by binding them to data and handling user interaction events.

Declarative Syntax

A design is an HTML document with custom elements for representing components and their configuration. A design has a single root component inside the HTML body element. Enclosing <html>, <head>, and <body> are optional, but necessary if you need to make namespace definitions for custom components. Other regular HTML elements may not be used in the file, except inside components that specifically accept HTML content.

In a design, each nested element corresponds to a Vaadin component in a component tree. Components can have explicitly given IDs to enable binding them to variables in the Java code, as well as optional attributes.

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <vaadin-vertical-layout size-full>
      <!-- Label with HTML content -->
      <vaadin-label><b>Hello!</b> -
                    How are you?</vaadin-label>

      <vaadin-grid _id="mygrid" caption="My Grid"
                    size-full :expand/>

The DOCTYPE is not required, neither is the <html>, or <body> elements. Nevertheless, there may only be one design root element.

The above design defines the same UI layout as done earlier with Java code, and illustrated in "Simple Hierarchical UI".

Component Elements

HTML elements of the declarative syntax are directly mapped to Vaadin components according to their Java class names. The tag of a component element has a namespace prefix separated by a dash. Vaadin core components, which are defined in the com.vaadin.ui package, have vaadin- prefix. The rest of an element tag is determined from the Java class name of the component, by making it lower-case, while adding a dash (-) before every previously upper-case letter as a word separator. For example, ComboBox component has declarative element tag vaadin-combo-box.

Component Prefix to Package Mapping

You can use any components in a design: components extending Vaadin components, composite components, and add-on components. To do so, you need to define a mapping from an element prefix to the Java package of the component. The prefix is used as a sort of a namespace.

The mappings are defined in <meta name="package-mapping" …​> elements in the HTML head. A content attribute defines a mapping, in notation with a prefix separated from the corresponding Java package name with a colon, such as my:com.example.myapp.

For example, consider that you have the following composite class com.example.myapp.ExampleComponent:

package com.example.myapp;

public class ExampleComponent extends CustomComponent {
    public ExampleComponent() {
        setCompositionRoot(new Label("I am an example."));

You would make the package prefix mapping and then use the component as follows:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <meta name="package-mapping"
          content="my:com.example.myapp" />

      <vaadin-label><b>Hello!</b> -
                How are you?</vaadin-label>

      <!-- Use it here -->

Inline Content and Data

The element content can be used for certain default attributes, such as a button caption. For example:


Some components, such as selection components, allow defining inline data within the element. For example:

  <option selected>Earth</option>

The declarative syntax of each component type is described in the JavaDoc API documentation of Vaadin.

Component Attributes

Attribute-to-Property Mapping

Component properties are directly mapped to the attributes of the HTML elements according to the names of the properties. Attributes are written in lower-case letters and dash is used for word separation instead of upper-case letters in the Java methods, so that placeholder attribute is equivalent to setPlaceholder().

For example, the caption property, which you can set with setCaption(), is represented as caption attribute. You can find the component properties by the setter methods in the JavaDoc API documentation of the component classes.

<vaadin-text-field caption="Name" placeholder="Enter Name"/>

Attribute Values

Attribute parameters must be enclosed in quotes and the value given as a string must be convertible to the type of the property (string, integer, boolean, or enumeration). Object types are not supported.

Some attribute names are given by a shorthand. For example, alternateText property of the Image component, which you would set with setAlternateText(), is given as the alt attribute.

Boolean values must be either true or false. The value can be omitted, in which case true is assumed. For example, the enabled attribute is boolean and has default value “true”, so enabled="true" and enabled and equivalent.

<vaadin-button enabled="false">OK</vaadin-button>

Parent Component Settings

Certain settings, such as a component’s alignment in a layout, are not done in the component itself, but in the layout. Attributes prefixed with colon ( :) are passed to the containing component, with the component as a target parameter. For example, :expand="1" given for a component c is equivalent to calling setExpandRatio(c, 1) for the containing layout.

<vaadin-vertical-layout size-full>
  <!-- Align right in the containing layout -->
  <vaadin-label width-auto :right>Hello!</vaadin-label>

  <!-- Expands to take up all remaining vertical space -->
  <vaadin-horizontal-layout size-full :expand>
    <!-- Automatic width - shrinks horizontally -->
    <vaadin-radio-button-group width-auto height-full/>

    <!-- Expands horizontally to take remaining space -->
    <vaadin-grid size-full :expand/>

Component Identifiers

Components can be identified by either an identifier or a caption. There are two types of identifiers: page-global and local. This allows accessing them from Java code and binding them to components, as described later in Using Designs in Code.

The id attribute can be used to define a page-global identifier, which must be unique within the page. Another design or UI shown simultaneously in the same page may not have components sharing the same ID. Using global identifiers is therefore not recommended, except in special cases where uniqueness is ensured.

The _id attribute defines a local identifier used only within the design. This is the recommended way to identifying components.

<vaadin-grid _id="mygrid" caption="My Grid"/>

Using Designs in Code

The main use of declarative designs is in building application views, sub-views, dialogs, and forms through composition. The two main tasks are filling the designs with application data and handling user interaction events.

Binding to a Design Root

You can bind any component container as the root component of a design with the @DesignRoot annotation. The class must match or extend the class of the root element in the design.

The member variables are automatically initialized from the design according to the component identifiers (see Component Identifiers), which must match the variable names.

For example, the following class could be used to bind the design given earlier.

public class MyViewDesign extends VerticalLayout {
    RadioButtonGroup<String> myRadioButtonGroup;
    Grid<String> myGrid;

    public MyViewDesign() {"MyDeclarativeUI.html", this);

        // Show some (example) data
        myCheckBoxGroup.setItems("Venus", "Earth", "Mars");

        // Some interaction
        myCheckBoxGroup.addValueChangeListener(event ->
  "Selected " +

The design root class must match or extend the root element class of the design. For example, earlier we had <vaadin-vertical-layout> element in the HTML file, which can be bound to a class extending VerticalLayout.

Using a Design

You can create and use a declaratively defined component just like any other component. For example, to use the previously defined design root component as the content of the entire UI:

public class DeclarativeViewUI extends UI {
    protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
        setContent(new MyViewDesign());

Designs in View Navigation

To use a design in view navigation, as described in "Navigating in an Application", you just need to implement the View interface.

public class MainView extends VerticalLayout
                      implements View {
    public MainView() {;

// Use the view by precreating it
navigator.addView(MAINVIEW, new MainView());

See "Handling Path Parameters" for a complete example.