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Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass) · Vaadin
Vaadin Framework - Themes - Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass)
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Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass)

Vaadin uses Sass for stylesheets. Sass is an extension of CSS3 that adds nested rules, variables, mixins, selector inheritance, and other features to CSS. Sass supports two formats for stylesheet: Vaadin themes are written in SCSS ( .scss), which is a superset of CSS3, but Sass also allows a more concise indented format ( .sass).

Sass can be used in two basic ways in Vaadin applications, either by compiling SCSS files to CSS or by doing the compilation on the fly. The latter way is possible if the development mode is enabled for the Vaadin servlet, as described in Other Servlet Configuration Parameters.

Sass Overview

Variables

Sass allows defining variables that can be used in the rules.

$textcolor: blue;

.v-button-caption {
  color: $textcolor;
}

The above rule would be compiled to CSS as:

.v-button-caption {
  color: blue;
}

Also mixins can have variables as parameters, as explained later.

Nesting

Sass supports nested rules, which are compiled into inside-selectors. For example:

.v-app {
  background: yellow;

  .mybutton {
    font-style: italic;

    .v-button-caption {
      color: blue;
    }
  }
}

is compiled as:

.v-app {
  background: yellow;
}

.v-app .mybutton {
    font-style: italic;
}

.v-app .mybutton .v-button-caption {
  color: blue;
}

Mixins

Mixins are rules that can be included in other rules. You define a mixin rule by prefixing it with the @mixin keyword and the name of the mixin. You can then use @include to apply it to another rule. You can also pass parameters to it, which are handled as local variables in the mixin.

For example:

@mixin mymixin {
  background: yellow;
}

@mixin othermixin($param) {
  margin: $param;
}

.v-button-caption {
  @include mymixin;
  @include othermixin(10px);
}

The above SCSS would translated to the following CSS:

.v-button-caption {
  background: yellow;
  margin: 10px;
}

You can also have nested rules in a mixin, which makes them especially powerful. Mixing in rules is used when extending Vaadin themes, as described in Sass Themes.

Vaadin themes are defined as mixins to allow for certain uses, such as different themes for different portlets in a portal.

Sass Basics with Vaadin

We are not going to give in-depth documentation of Sass and refer you to its excellent documentation at http://sass-lang.com/. In the following, we give just basic introduction to using it with Vaadin.

You can create a new Sass-based theme with the Eclipse plugin, as described in Creating a Theme in Eclipse.